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A New Norisoprenoid and Other Compounds from Fuzhuan Brick Tea

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Effects of L-Theanine | Natural Chinese Dark Tea

Chinese Research on PHatea®

PHatea® is the lowest caffeine, highest Theanine tea available in the US.  Hundreds of studies exist showing the many health benefits of PHatea™. But what makes tea the most consumed beverage in the world after water is its pleasant taste and relaxation effect. Both of these qualities—and more—can be traced to a unique, neurologically-active amino acid in tea called L-theanine (gamma-ethylamino-L-glutamic acid).

L-theanine is a free (non-protein) amino acid found almost exclusively in tea plants (Camellia sp.), constituting between 1 and 2-percent of the dry weight of tea leaves. It is the predominant amino acid in tea leaves, giving tea its characteristic umami or "5th taste" (besides the four traditional tastes: sweet, salty, acid, and bitter).

Physiological Effects

Calming effects of PHatea™ may seem contradictory to the stimulatory property of tea's caffeine content but it can be explained by the action of L-theanine. This amino acid actually acts antagonistically against the stimulatory effects of caffeine on the nervous system. (1) Research on human volunteers has demonstrated that L-theanine creates a sense of relaxation in approximately 30-40 minutes after ingestion via at least two different mechanisms. First, this amino acid directly stimulates the production of alpha brain waves, creating a state of deep relaxation and mental alertness similar to what is achieved through meditation. Second, L-theanine is involved in the formation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). GABA influences the levels of two other neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, producing the key relaxation effect. (2) 


Effects On Hyperlipidemia | Natural Chinese Dark Tea

Chinese Research on PHatea®

"Research of Fuzhuan Tea’s Therapy for Hyperlipidemia by High-Throughput Screening". Journal of Tea Science, 2006, 26(3):209-214. Fu, Dong-he, et al.

Abstract: Searching high effective and natural medicines for therapy for hyperlipidemia is one of the focuses of research. High-Throughput Screening is a kind of new technique of medicine screening. The water extractions of FUZHUAN Tea were extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol separately. The samples were used to test their function of adjusting fat metabolism of FUZHUAN Tea by the models of PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, LXR, FXR and 3T3-L1 of High-Throughput Screening. The results showed that FUZHUAN Tea could activate PPARγ, PPARδ and restrain FXR. Its effect to PPRAα and 3T3-L1 was not obvious. FUZHUAN Tea was effective in therapy for hyperlipidemia. The active components need to be separated later.

Key words: Fuzhuan Tea, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, LXR, FXR, 3T3-L1, high-Throughput Screening

Explanation of results: The known scientific laboratory models for demonstrating changes in lipid metabolism, PPARγ, PPARδ and FXR, showed that the extractions from Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®) could activate PPARγ and PPARδ and restrain FXR. These models have been proven to indicate if an extraction can have lipid lowering effects. PHatea® has lipid lowering effects. This means PHatea® is good for obtaining healthy cholesterol levels.


Basic Science | Natural Chinese Dark Tea

Chinese Research on PHatea®

"Suppression of free-radicals and protection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in HPF-1 cell by oxidized phenolic compounds present in black tea".  Food Chemistry, 2007, doi:10.1016/jfoodchem.2007.05.006, Yang, Z et al.

 Abstract: Whereas catechins are the most abundant polyphenols in green tea, the typical pigments in black tea are theaflavins (TF), thearubigins12 (TR) and theabrownins (TB), which are derived from the oxidation of catechins and their gallates during the fermentation stage of black  tea processing. In this study, oxidized phenolic compounds (TF, TR and TB) present in black tea were obtained from a model oxidation  system, using immobile enzyme. The order of OH__ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-scavenging ability of these oxidation products was TF > TB > TR. These oxidized phenolic compounds showed protection against H2O2-induced damage in HPF-1 cells and suppressed the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in H2O2-induced damage of HPF-1 cells. Interestingly, TB, as a further oxidative product from TF or TR, showed potent activity, followed TF in the above four systems. 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Key words: Antioxidant activity; Theaflavins; Thearubigins; Theabrownins; Oxidative damage; HPF-1

Explanation of results: The oxidation of the Catechins found in "black tea", produce three pigments that are not found in green teas. PHatea® is in this post-fermented "black" tea class of Chinese tea. The pigments produced are theaflavins, thearubigins and theabrownins and have been shown to protect cells from the damage that can be caused to the cell when oxygen free radicals are present. These same oxygen free radicals are thought to be a risk factor for cancer and cardiovascular disease.


Effect On Digestive Enzymes From the Pancreas

Chinese Research on PHatea®

“The Effect of Different Extracts on Fuzhuan Tea on the Activities of Digesting Enzymes”. Journal of Tea Science, 2008, 28(1):62-66. Fu, Dong-he, et al.

Abstract: Fuzhuan Tea was extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol in turn. The effect of Fuzhuan Tea on the activities of metabolize enzyme was investigated. The results showed that different fractions of Fuzhuan Tea had different effects on pancreatic lipase activity. The sample extracted by chloroform could restrain pancreatic lipase a little and the relative activity was 0.82. The water extracts, the sample extracted by ethyl acetate and 1-butanol showed obvious activation, that of the sample extracted by 1-butanol was the most active. The multiple was 2.54. All fractions of Fuzhuan Tea were active to α-amylase, among them, the sample extracted by ethyl acetate was the most active. The relative activity was 4.09. The water extracts was the second one and its relative activity was 2.99. That of the layer of water sample was not obvious. The sample extracted by chloroform could restrain α-amylase a little and the relative activity was 0.88. The samples separated from the sample extracted by ethyl acetate and the sample extracted by 1-butanol were active to α-amylase and pancreatic lipase respectively.

Keywords: Fuzhuan Tea, α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, enzyme activity, component

Explanation of results: The enzymes amylase and lipase produced by the pancreas, that are responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates (sugars) and lipids (fats), respectively, are activated by Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®). Different extraction methods during processing also determined the level of activation and the samples extracted by ethyl acetate or water were the most active. These are the methods of extraction used to make PHatea® extract.

Toxicity | Natural Chinese Dark Tea

Chinese Research on PHatea®

“Study on the Toxicity Experiments of Fuzhuan Tea”. Journal of Tea Science, 2007, 27(4):307-310. Xiao, Wen-jun, et al.

Abstract: The toxic experiment of Fuzhuan tea was carried out by using the extracted instant Fuzhuan tea as material in order to evaluate its safety for the mice and rat. The results showed that the LD50 of male mice and female mice was 14 700 mg/kg•bw and 19 600 mg/kg•bw respectively(the limit reliability was 10 600~36 000), and both of the Ames test and the semen teratogenicity results were negative. During the 30 days fed by the feeding mixed with 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.70% instant Fuzhuan Tea for the rat rats of each dose group grew well, the hemogram indexes of rats from each dosage, blood biochemical indexes and triglyceride, Urea anhydride, blood muscle anhydride and blood sugar indexes, ratio of spleen to body weight, kidney to body weight, and the histopathological characteristic of all test rats showed no significantly difference (P<0.05), which suggested Fuzhuan Tea was a no poisonous food.

Keywords: Fuzhuan Tea, Fuzhuan brick tea, toxicity experiment, LD50

Explanation of results: Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®) was tested for the potential for toxicity in a mice model at three different concentrations and the biochemical functions of the normal growth of the mouse, organ size ratios, teratogenicity (possibility of forming abnormal cells), and blood chemistries all remained within a normal range at all concentrations proving PHatea® to be non-toxic.