PHatea®

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Golden Flower Clinical Studies

TOXICITY:

  • “Study on the Toxicity Experiments of Fuzhuan Tea”. Journal of Tea Science, 2007, 27(4):307-310. Xiao, Wen-jun, et al.

Abstract: The toxic experiment of Fuzhuan tea was carried out by using the extracted instant Fuzhuan tea as material in order to evaluate its safety for the mice and rat. The results showed that the LD50 of male mice and female mice was 14 700 mg/kg·bw and 19 600 mg/kg·bw respectively(the limit reliability was 10 600~36 000), and both of the Ames test and the semen teratogenicity results were negative. During the 30 days fed by the feeding mixed with 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.70% instant Fuzhuan Tea for the rat rats of each dose group grew well, the hemogram indexes of
rats from each dosage, blood biochemical indexes and triglyceride, Urea anhydride, blood muscle anhydride and blood sugar indexes, ratio of spleen to body weight, kidney to body weight, and the histopathological characteristic of all test rats showed no significantly difference (P<0.05), which suggested Fuzhuan Tea was a no poisonous food.
Keywords: Fuzhuan Tea, Fuzhuan brick tea, toxicity experiment, LD50

Explanation of results:

Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®) was tested for the potential for toxicity in a mice model at three different concentrations and the biochemical functions of the normal growth of the mouse, organ size ratios, teratogenicity (possibility of forming abnormal cells), and blood chemistries all remained within a normal range at all concentrations proving PHatea® to be non-toxic.

EFFECT ON DIGESTIVE ENZYMES FROM THE PANCREAS:

  • “The Effect of Different Extracts on Fuzhuan Tea on the Activities of Digesting Enzymes”. Journal of Tea Science, 2008, 28(1):62-66. Fu, Dong-he, et al.

Abstract: Fuzhuan Tea was extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol in turn. The effect of Fuzhuan Tea on the activities of metabolize enzyme was investigated. The results showed that different fractions of Fuzhuan Tea had different effects on pancreatic lipase activity. The sample extracted by chloroform could restrain pancreatic lipase a little and the relative activity was 0.82. The water extracts, the sample extracted by ethyl acetate and 1-butanol showed obvious activation, that of the sample extracted by 1-butanol was the most active. The multiple was 2.54. All fractions of Fuzhuan Tea were active to α-amylase, among them, the sample extracted by ethyl acetate was the most active. The relative activity was 4.09. The water extracts was the second one and its relative activity was 2.99. That of the layer of water sample was not obvious. The sample extracted by chloroform could restrain α-amylase a little and the relative activity was 0.88. The samples separated from the sample extracted by ethyl acetate and the sample extracted by 1-butanol were active to α-amylase and pancreatic lipase respectively.
Keywords:
Fuzhuan Tea, α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, enzyme activity, component

Explanation of results:
The enzymes amylase and lipase produced by the pancreas, that are responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates (sugars) and lipids (fats), respectively, are activated by Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®). Different extraction methods during processing also determined the level of activation and the samples extracted by ethyl acetate or water were the most active. These are the methods of extraction used to make PHatea® extract.

BASIC SCIENCE:

  • ”Comparative Study on the Components of Pu’er Tea and Fu-Brick Tea with Black Tea by LC-MS”. Journal of Tea Science, 2006, 26(3):191-194. Zhu, Qi, et al.

Abstract: Comparative study has been done on the components of Pu’er tea and Fu-brick tea with the identified components of black tea by LC-MS. Result shows that Pu’er tea and Fu-brick tea, which belonged to the Dark tea group, had the similar UV chromatography, it means that they have some similar compounds. However they are different from black tea as they have not typical peaks of theaflavin and thearubigin at the 380 nm. The way to study the black tea might not be suitable for dark tea. Some components can be found by MS, however, they can not be identified in UV picture as their contents are too low.
Key words: Pu’er tea, Fu-brick tea, LC-MS, components

Explanation of results:

When Fuzhuan brick tea (PHatea®) was compared to black tea (an example would be Lipton® tea), because PHatea® had lower concentrations of theaflavin and thearubrigin, the purported health benefits seen from PHatea® are likely due to the Eurotium Cristatum and its production of bioactive substances unique to this tea, not these two pigments.

  • “Research Progress on Eurotium Cristatum and its Metabolites in Fuzhuan Tea”. Journal of Tea Science, Tea Communication, 2010, 37(1):23-26. Lui, Zi-yin, et al.

Abstract: The Eurotium Cristatum is the main germ in the fungus growing process of Fuzhuan brick tea. Through its metabolism we not only could improve the quality of tea, but also increase a great deal of microorganism's bioactive substances. So it has very important practical significance to study on Eurotium Cristatum and its metabolites. In this paper, we reviewed the research progresses of Eurotium Cristatum and its metabolites, discussed the problems existed at present and made prospects for the future research as well.
Key words: Fuzhuan tea, Eurotium Cristatum, Metabolites

Explanation of results:

The unique fungus Eurotium Cristatum is thought to interact with other microorganisms in Fuzhuan brick tea (PHatea®) to produce bioactive substances known to improve the quality of tea as well as its benefits to the consumer. Further study of this tea will help define the mechanisms by which this is accomplished.

  •  “Study on Changes of Active Components in Dark Tea (Fuzhuan Tea) During Liquid Fermentation by Eurotium Cristatum”. Journal of Tea Science, 2007, 28(12):231-234. Huang, Qun, et al.

Abstract: In this study, the changes of active components in dark tea related to the growth of Eurotium Cristatum during the liquid fermentation were studied. The results showed that the color of fermenting liquor deepens gradually, and it becomes muddy because of mycelium autolysis in the later stage. The contents of tea polyphenol, catechin, amino acid and sugar all decrease gradually. The tea pigments, such as theaflavin(TF), thearubigin(TR), theabrownin(TB), vary dynamically in different fermentation stages.
Key words: Eurotium Cristatum, dark tea slurry fluid, liquid fermentation, active component, variance trend

Explanation of results:

This study demonstrated that the growth of the Eurotium Cristatum in Fuzhuan brick tea (PHatea®) had a decreasing effect on tea concentrations of polyphenols, catechins, amino acids and sugars as the fermentation process continued. It was also evident that the levels of the tea pigments, theaflavin, thearubigin and theabrownin varied throughout the process as well. This demonstrates that the health benefits of PHatea® are unique to this tea.

  • “Variations of Components of Fuzhuan Tea during Processing”. Journal of Tea Science, 2008, 29(2):64-67. Fu, Donghe, et al.

Abstract :The characteristics of Fuzhuan tea are different from dark green tea because of the step of fungus growing. The variations of several main components contents of Fuzhuan tea during processing were tested. The results showed that the contents of all kinds of components decrease. The contents of catechins, flavones and polyphenols decrease separately 63.64%, 51.52% and 54.62%, the contents of amino acids and caffeine decrease 36.84% and 10.85% separately, and contents of soluble sugar and water extract have no significant changes. The components contents decrease the fastest during fungus growing. Eurotium Cristatum etc. fungus endow Fuzhuan tea with unique characteristics.
Key words: Fuzhuan tea, fungus growing, component

Explanation of results:

Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®) has been shown to have lower levels of Catechins, flavones, polyphenols, certain amino acids and caffeine than dark green tea, due to the Eurotium Cristatum being present in PHatea®. Previously, Catechins, flavones and polyphenols were thought to be the mechanism of health benefits in tea. This adds evidence to explain why the bioactive substances present only in PHatea® are likely what gives it medicinal properties.

  • “Cellulase Enzymatic Property of Eurotium Cristatum from Brick (Fuzhuan) Tea”. Journal of Tea Science, 2010, 30(1):57-62. Cai, Zheng-an, et al.

Abstract: Eurotium Cristatum isolated from brick tea were enlarged to foster by liquid fermentation and then crude enzyme was prepared from the culture of Eurotium Cristatum. Cellulase activity of the crude enzyme liquid was measured by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method under different conditions. The results showed that the optimum temperature for enzymatic reaction was 50℃, and the optimum reactive pH value was at 4.8. The cellulase activity was stabile under conditions of 30~50℃ and pH 4.0~6.0. The cellulase activity was stimulated by Ca2+、Mg2+ ions and inhibited by Mn2+、Zn2+、Pb2+ ions. The research will be significance for production of brick tea.
Keywords: brick tea, Eurotium Cristatum, cellulose, enzymatic property

Explanation or results:

The optimal temperature and pH for the production of Fuzhuan brick tea (PHatea®) were determined by measuring the activity of cellulase enzyme obtained from a culture of Eurotium Cristatum from Fuzhuan brick tea (PHatea®). This is an indication that PHatea® is not just dry tea leaves, like most teas, but a living food.   

EFFECTS ON HYPERLIPIDEMIA:

  • “Research of Fuzhuan Tea’s Therapy for Hyperlipidemia by High-Throughput Screening”. Journal of Tea Science, 2006, 26(3):209-214. Fu, Dong-he, et al.

Abstract: Searching high effective and natural medicines for therapy for hyperlipidemia is one of the focus of research. High-Throughput Screening is a kind of new technique of medicine screening. The water extractions of FUZHUAN Tea were extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol separately. The samples were used to test their function of adjusting fat metabolism of FUZHUAN Tea by the models of PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, LXR, FXR and 3T3-L1 of High-Throughput Screening. The results showed that FUZHUAN Tea could activate PPARγ, PPARδ and restrain FXR. Its effect to PPRAα and 3T3-L1 was not obvious. FUZHUAN Tea was effective in therapy for hyperlipidemia. The active components need to be separated later.Key words: Fuzhuan Tea, PPARα, PPARγ, PPARδ, LXR, FXR, 3T3-L1, high-Throughput Screening.

Explanation of results:

The known scientific laboratory models for demonstrating changes in lipid metabolism, PPARγ, PPARδ and FXR, showed that the extractions from Fuzhuan tea (PHatea®) could activate PPARγ and PPARδ and restrain FXR. These models have been proven to indicate if an extraction can have lipid lowering effects. PHatea® has lipid lowering effects. This means PHatea® is good for obtaining healthy cholesterol levels.

  • “Study on the Regulation of Blood Lipid by Fuzhuan Tea”. Journal of Tea Science, 2007, 27(3):211-214. Xiao, Wen-jun, et al.

Abstract: The experiment of three different doses of instant Fu Brick Tea (0.085 g/kg·bw, 0.170 g/kg·bw and 0.510 g/kg·bw) fed the Wistar rats for 30 days were conducted. The results showed that Fu Brick Tea had the effect of decreasing the body weight, TC, TG and increasing the HDL-C. The Fu Brick Tea beverage was processed by the method of extracting the tea for 1 hour with the ratio of 1:1000 of tea to water. The beverage was drunk by volunteers with the dose of 1 000 ml/day for 34 days, the content of TC and TG in drinker decreased significantly, the content of LDL-C also decreased, and the content of HDL-C increased significantly. All the drinkers felt fine, and their results of blood routine tests, blood sugar indexes and liver and kidney functions were normal. The beverage was stable for 90 days storage with all indexes in accordance with the National Hygeian Standard. All results suggested Fu Brick Tea showed beneficial effect on the regulation of blood lipid.
Keywords: Fu Brick Tea, adjusting blood lipid, TC, TG, HLD-C, LDL-C

Explanation of results:

This is one of the most important studies to date as there is proof that Fuzhuan brick tea (PHatea®) lowered Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), LDL Cholesterol (LDL-C) and raised HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C) in humans drinking one liter of PHatea® a day and when fed to Wistar mice in the laboratory. The mice also saw a decrease in body weight (weight loss) implying that PHatea® can be used for weight loss, as well as healthy cholesterol levels.

  • “Investigation on the Function of Monomers in Fuzhuan Tea by Throughput Screening”. Journal of Tea Science, 2008, 28(1):39-42. Fu, Dong-he, et al.

Abstract: Six compounds separated from Fuzhuan Tea were tested by High-Throughput Screening of model FXR, LXR, PPARδ, PPARγ and 3T3-L1 related to the lipid-depressing and anti-obesity. Results showed that all monomers were active to the models selected. To the active model FXR, gallic acid and ECG were active on the concentration of 50 μg/ml. The activating value of GA and ECG was 1.766 and 3.220 respectively. EGCG was very active on the concentration of 10 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml. The active value reached 6.0 when the concentration was 50 μg/ml. To PPARδ, the three compounds were active when the concentration was 50 μg/ml. The activating value of GC to PPARγ model was 1.619. The activating value of 3- methoxy- 4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid in PPARγ model was 1.734. The restraining value of 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid in FXR model was 3.641, while that of CDCA(CK) was 6.435. All the results showed that all the compounds were functional ones.
Keywords:
Fuzhuan Tea, monomer, high-throughput screening, therapy hyperlipidemia and adiposity.